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Sewage treatment plant (STP) Sewage Treatment is the process of removing contaminants from waste water, primarily from household sewage. It includes physical, chemical & biological processes to remove these contaminants & produce environmentally safe treated wastewater (or treated effluent). Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from municipal wastewater, containing mainly household sewage plus some industrial wastewater. Physical, chemical, and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater (or treated effluent) that is safe enough for release into the environment. A by-product of sewage treatment is a semi-solid waste or slurry, called sewage sludge. The sludge has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or application to land.